Continued from…Reducing street area where motor traffic is given priority.

Slow Point Examples: Medians

Medians

Medians are islands located along the roadway centerline, separating opposing directions of traffic
movement. They can be either raised or flush with the level of the roadway surface. They can be expressed as painted pavement markings, raised concrete platforms, landscaped areas, or any of a variety of other design forms. Medians can provide special facilities to accommodate pedestrians and
bicyclists, especially at crossings of major roadways.

Design Considerations:
• Medians are most valuable on major, multi-lane roads that present safety problems for bicyclists
and pedestrians wishing to cross. The minimum central refuge width for safe use by those with
wheelchairs, bicycles, baby buggies, etc. is 1.6 meters (2 meters is desirable).
• Where medians are used as pedestrian and bicyclist refuges, internally illuminated bollards are suggested on the medians to facilitate quick and easy identification.
• Used in isolation, roadway medians do not have a significant impact in reducing vehicle speeds. For the purpose of slowing traffic, medians are generally used in conjunction with other devices, such as curb extensions or roadway lane narrowing.

Several caveats apply:
• To achieve meaningful speed reductions, the travel lane width reduction must be substantial and visually obvious. The slowing, however, is temporary; as soon as the roadway widens again, traffic resumes its normal speed.
• Bicyclists have been put at risk of being squeezed where insufficient room has been left between a central median and the adjacent curb. Experience shows that most drivers are unlikely to hold back in such instances to let bicyclists go through first. This threat is particularly serious on roads with high proportions of heavy vehicles.
• The contradiction between the need to reduce the roadway width sufficiently to lower motorist speeds, while at the same time leaving  enough room for bicyclists to ride safely, must be addressed. This may be achieved by reducing the roadway width to the minimum necessary for a bicyclist and a motorist to pass safely (i.e., 3.5 meters).

There are three suggestions:
• Introducing color or texture changes to the road surface material around the refuge area reminds motorist that a speed reduction is intended.
• White striping gives a visual impression that vehicles are confined to a narrower roadway than that created by the physical obstruction — adjacent areas exist that vehicles can run over, but these are not generally apparent to approaching drivers.
• In some cases, provide an alternate, cut-through route for the bicyclists.

Next… Slow Point Examples:Curb Extensions

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Continued from…Intersection Humps/Raised Intersections:

2. Reducing street areas where motor traffic is given priority. This category of traffic-calming includes all those that reduce the area of the street designated exclusively for motor vehicle travel. “Reclaimed” space is typically used for landscaping, pedestrian amenities, and parking.

Discussed here are:
• Slow points.
• Medians.
Curb extensions.
• Corner radius treatment.
• Narrow traffic lanes.

Slow Points (neck-downs, traffic throttles, pinch points) - Slow points narrow a two-way road over a short
distance, forcing motorists to slow and, in some cases, to merge into a single lane. Sometimes these are used in conjunction with a speed table and  coincident with a pedestrian crossing. The following are advantages and disadvantages of both one-lane and two-lane slow points:

(1) One-lane slow point.
One-lane slow points restrict traffic flow to one lane. This lane must accommodate motor traffic in both travel directions. Passage through the slow point can be either straight through or angled.
Advantages:
• Vehicle speed reduced.
• Most effective when used in a series.
• Imposes minimal inconvenience to local traffic.
• Pedestrians have a reduced crossing distance, greater safety.
Disadvantages:
• Reduced sight distances if landscaping is not low and trimmed.
• Contrary to driver expectations of unobstructed flow.
• Can be hazardous for drivers and bicyclists if not designed and maintained properly.
• Opposing drivers arriving simultaneously can create confrontation.

(2) Two-lane slow point.
Two-lane slow points narrow the roadway while providing one travel lane in each direction.
Advantages:
• Only a minor inconvenience to drivers.
• Regulates parking and protects parked vehicles as the narrowing can help stop illegal parking.
• Pedestrian crossing distances reduced.
• Space for landscaping provided.
Disadvantages:
• Not very effective in slowing vehicles or diverting through traffic.
• Only partially effective as a visual obstruction.

Design Considerations:
• Where slow points have been used in isolation as speed control measures, bicyclists have felt squeezed as motorists attempt to overtake them at the narrowing. Not all bicyclists have the confidence to position themselves in the middle of the road to prevent overtaking on the approach to and passage through the narrow area.
• To reduce the risk of bicyclists’ being squeezed, slow points should generally be used in conjunction
with other speed control devices such as speed tables at the narrowing. Slower moving drivers will be more inclined to allow bicyclists through before trying to pass. Where bicycle flows are high, consideration should be given to  a separate right-of-way for bicyclists past the narrow area.
• A textured surface such as brick or pavers may be used to emphasize pedestrian crossing movement. Substituting this for the normal roadway surface material may also help to impress upon motorists that lower speeds are intended.
• Such measures should not confuse pedestrians with respect to the boundary of the roadway area over which due care should still be taken. In particular, where a road is raised to the level of the adjacent sidewalk, this can cause problems for those with poor sight. However, a tactile strip may help blind people in distinguishing between the roadway and the sidewalk; similarly, a color variation will aid those who are partially sighted.
• Slow points can be used to discourage use of the street by large vehicles. They can, however, be barriers to fire trucks and other emergency vehicles. Some designs permit access by emergency vehicles by means of lockable posts or ramped islands.
• Slow points can enhance the appearance of the street. For example, landscaped islands can be installed, intruding into the roadway to form a narrow “gate” through which drivers must pass. Landscaping enhances the neighborhood’s sense of nature and provides a visual break in views along the street.
• Slow points are generally only sanctioned where traffic flows are less then 4,000 to 5,000 vehicles per day. Above this level, considerable delays will occur during peak periods.
• Clear signing should indicate traffic flow priorities.

Next… Slow Point Examples

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Intersection Humps/Raised Intersections
continued from Raised Crosswalks

Intersection humps raise the roadway at the intersection, forming a type of “plateau” across the intersection, with a ramp on each approach.  The plateau is at curb level and can be enhanced through the use of distinctive surfacing such as pavement coloring, brickwork, or other pavements. In some cases, the distinction between roadway and sidewalk surfaces is blurred. If this is done, physical obstructions such as bollards or planters should be considered, restricting the area to which motor vehicles have access.

Design Considerations:
• Ramps should not exceed a maximum gradient of 16 percent.
• Raised and/or textured surfaces can be used to alert drivers to the need for particular care.
• Distinctive surfacing helps reinforce the concept of a “calmed” area and thus plays a part in reducing vehicle speeds.
• Distinctive surfacing materials should be skid-resistant, particularly on inclines.
• Ramps should be clearly marked to enable bicyclists to identify and anticipate them, particularly under conditions of poor visibility.
• Care must be taken so the visually impaired have adequate cues to identify the roadway’s location (e.g., tactile strips). Color contrasts will aid those who are partially sighted.

Next… Traffic Calming - Reducing Street Area Where Motor Vehicle Traffic is a Priority.

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Raised Crosswalks

(Continued from Bumps, Humps, & Other Raised Pavement Areas)

Raised crosswalks are essentially broad, flat-topped speed humps that coincide with pedestrian crosswalks at street intersections. The crosswalks are raised above the level of the roadway to slow traffic, enhance crosswalk visibility, and make the crossing easier for pedestrians who may have difficulty stepping up and down curbs.

Raised Crosswalks Design Considerations:
• Can be constructed of brick, concrete block, colored asphalt or cement, with ramps striped for
better visibility.
• Raised crosswalks are applicable:
(1) On roadways with vehicular speeds perceived as being incompatible with the adjacent residential                       land uses.
(2) Where there is a significant number of pedestrian crossings.
(3) In conjunction with other traffic-calming devices, particularly entry treatments.
(4) On two-lane or fewer residential streets classified as either “local streets” or neighborhood
collector streets.”
(5) On roadways with 85th percentile speeds less than 45 mph.

Next… Intersection Humps/Raised Intersections

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Speed Bumps and Humps are included in the category that includes all traffic-calming devices raised above pavement level.  Drivers have no other choice than to slow down when they cross these devices or suffer an uncomfortable KER-BUMP or (KER-BUMP-KER-BUMP), running the risk of spilled coffee and a severe jolt to their tailbones.  Although people often gripe about the inconvenience of having to slow down for these devices, they don’t have much choice. Their effectiveness at slowing traffic cannot be disputed. They are sometimes referred to as “Silent Policemen.”

Included in this category are:
• Speed bumps.
• Speed humps.
• Raised crosswalks.
• Raised intersections.

Speed Bumps
A speed bump is a raised area in the roadway pavement surface extending transversely across the travel way, generally with a height of 3 to 6 inches and a length of 1 to 3 feet.

Speed Bump Design Considerations:
• Most effective if used in a series at 300- to 500- foot spacing.
• Typically used on private property for speed control – parking lots, apartment complexes, private streets, and driveways.
• Speed bumps are not conducive to bicycle travel, so they should be used carefully.

Speed Humps
A speed hump (or “road hump”) is a raised area in the roadway pavement surface extending transversely across the roadway. Speed humps normally have a minimum height of 3 to 4 inches and a travel length of approximately 12 feet, although these dimensions may vary. In some cases, the speed hump may raise the roadway surface to the height of the adjacent curb for a short distance. The humps can be round or flat-topped.

The flat-topped configuration is sometimes called a “speed table.” Humps can either extend the full width of the road, curb-to-curb, or be cut back at the sides to allow bicycles to pass and facilitate drainage.

Speed Hump Design Considerations:
• If mid-block pedestrian crossings exist or are planned, they can be coordinated with speed hump installation since vehicle speeds will be lowest at the hump to negotiate ramps or curbs between the sidewalk and the street.
• The hump must be visible at night.
• Speed humps should be located to avoid conflict with underground utility access to boxes, vaults, and sewers.
• Speed humps should not be constructed at driveway locations.
• Speed humps may be constructed on streets without curbs, but steps should be taken to prevent circumnavigation around the humps in these situations.
• Adequate signing and marking of each speed hump is essential to warn roadway users of the hump’s presence and guide their subsequent movements.
• Speed humps should not be installed in street sections where transit vehicles must transition between the travel lane and curbside stop. To the extent possible, speed humps should be located to ensure that transit vehicles can traverse the hump perpendicularly.
• A single hump acts as only a point speed control. To reduce speeds along an extended section of street, a series of humps is usually needed. Typically, speed humps are spaced at between 300 and 600 feet apart.

Speed Hump Real Life Example:
Bellevue, Washington has installed speed humps in residential neighborhoods (labeled as speed “bumps” below, although broader than the typical speed bump). The City uses a 12-foot-wide hump, 3 inches high at the center.  The design allows for little or no discomfort at speeds of 15 to 25 mph, but will cause discomfort at higher speeds. The humps are marked clearly, distinguishing them from crosswalks. White reflectors enhance nighttime visibility. Bellevue found that the speed humps reduced traffic speeds and volumes. The humps, in general, received strong public support, and residents favored their permanent  installation.

The following concerns were raised regarding the speed hump installation:

• Concern about restricted access and increased response time for emergency vehicles. The Bellevue Fire Department asked that the humps be installed on primary emergency access routes.
• Concern about aesthetics of signing and markings at the traffic humps. Residents raising the concerns, however, felt that the speed reductions compensated for the appearance of the humps.
• Concern about the effectiveness of the humps in reducing motor vehicle speeds along the length of a street, not at just two or three points. The distance between speed humps was found to
have an impact on traffic speeds. The City found that maximum spacing should be approximately
500 feet.

The Bellevue Department of Public Works concluded that speed humps were effective speed-control measures on residential streets and recommended their use be continued.

Next… Raised Crosswalks

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